Hangzhou Liangtang Electronics Co., Ltd.

Hangzhou Liangtang Electronics Co., Ltd.

5G modem chips form a pattern of competing for supremacy

Guide: with the development of 5G technology, the world is about to enter a data explosion era, this will be a historic change, for the network architecture, this means a disruptive change.

With the development of 5G technology, the world is about to enter an era of data explosion, this will be a historic change, for the network architecture, it means a subversive transformation of .5G technology rapid development, to a large extent, Promote communications, electronic components, chips, terminal applications and other industrial chain upgrade.

The main scenario of 5G technology application is still mobile phone. Although the planning prospect of IoT Internet of things is very large and worth looking forward to, the real first large-scale application will definitely be mobile phone terminal. Among them, chip is the key of smart phone terminal. As a result, the industry giant has fallen into 5 G mobile phone chip white-hot competition in the heat.

Definition of baseband chip

The baseband chip is the most important part of the mobile phone chip, and it is generally believed that the performance of the mobile phone CPU is reflected in its processing speed and power consumption. In fact, the most basic problem in the field of smart phone is the quality of the mobile phone signal. This is determined by the baseband performance of the communication function directly determines the quality of mobile phone and Internet speed.

Baseband chips are used to synthesize incoming baseband signals, or to decode received baseband signals. In other words, at the time of transmission, audio signals are compiled into baseband codes for transmission, and when received, Decipher the received baseband code as an audio signal. Also responsible for the address information, text information, picture information to compile.

Components of baseband chips

Baseband chip consists of CPU processor, channel encoder, digital signal processor, modem and interface module.

CPU processor: mainly interprets computer instructions and processes data in computer software. CPU is responsible for reading instructions, decoding instructions and executing the core components of instructions.

2, channel encoder: it mainly completes the channel coding and encryption of traffic information and control information. The channel coding includes convolutional coding and fire code, product parity check code, interleaving, burst pulse formatting.

3. Digital signal processor (DSP): the channel equalization of Viterbi algorithm and the speech coding and decoding based on regular impulse excitation and long term prediction technology.

Modem: mainly completes the GMSK modulation and demodulation mode required by the GSM system.

Interface module: mainly includes analog interface, auxiliary interface and digital interface.

A team of men competes for 5G baseband chip market

With the coming commercial use of 5 G networks, mobile phone chip manufacturers have launched their own 5 G chips. Phone chips can be divided into RF chips, baseband modems and core application processors after Qualcomm, Intel, Samsung and Huawei unveiled their 5G baseband chips and announced that they are expected to be commercially available in 2019.

1, Qualcomm

In terms of technical strength, Qualcomm topped the list of baseband chipmakers. As early as October 2016, Qualcomm had already released a 5G modem chipset, Snapdragon X50, and on the evening of August 22 this year, Qualcomm officially announced that Has begun to sample a new generation of SoC chips, using 7nm process. The 7nm SoC can be paired with the X505G baseband, and Qualcomm said it expects to be the first mobile platform to support 5G functionality.

Qualcomm is the industry's largest independent provider of smart phone modems. Its chipset transmits 1.25 gigabits per second of (Gbps). In the 28-ghz millimeter-wave radio band The X505G modem chip marks an acceleration in the pace of creating a 5G standard, implying an era of dramatically improved network capacity.

2, Intel

As the leader of the PC processor, in 2010, through the acquisition of Infineon Wireless Division, extended its tentacles into the field of communications they are not good at. On January 5, 17, following Qualcomm's pace, it officially released its first 5G modem.

The modem is powered by a baseband chip capable of supporting both 6GHz and millimeter-wave bands, which means it can be tested and deployed globally. Intel also calls it the first universal modem, which it uses in conjunction with Intel's 6GHz 5GRFIC and 28GHz 5G RFIC's MWC launch last year. Its 5G transceiver can support both 6GHz and millimeter-wave frequency band 5G RFIC, which can bring better communication capability to the terminal, and can realize long-distance coverage through low frequency. High-frequency can transmit large amount of data (up to the speed of several Gbps).

3, Samsung

On August 15, Samsung announced the launch of its first 5 G baseband chip, Exynos Modem 5100. Exynos Modem 5100 is the industry's first fully compliant 3GPP Release 15 specification, the latest 5G NR new empty port protocol baseband product.

This is the world's first full support for the 3GPP Release 15 standard 5 G baseband chip. In addition to supporting 6GHz and millimeter-wave bands, it is built with Samsung's own 10-nanometer manufacturing process, with a download rate of up to 6 Gbpsand a 2 / 3 / 4 4G all-Netcom network.

The future 5 G network has the characteristics of high speed and low delay. In addition to the Exynos Modem 5100 5G baseband chip, Samsung said it would also offer RF IC,ET network tracking, as well as power management IC chips, which are expected to begin to sample customers by the end of 2018.

4, Huawei

Huawei is not only the world's largest communications equipment company, Huawei's Heath baseband R & D technology is also leading the industry.

Heath's SOC, though a homegrown product, is a public architecture, but some of the baseband's masterpieces are the Balong series.

On February 25 this year, Huawei announced the launch of the world's first 8-antenna 4.5G LTE modulation and demodulation chip Balong 765 (Baron 765), and directly introduced the 5G terminal CPE, based on Baron 5G01, which has the world's leading communication connection capability. It can improve the efficiency of spectrum resource utilization, bring extreme communication experience to end users, and provide a highly integrated and reliable chip solution for vehicle networking.

5G baseband status bottleneck

In order to achieve high speed and high reliability, 5G baseband chip must use high speed baseband digital modulation and demodulation technology. However, at present, the technology is mature and widely used in QAM mode, which is mainly due to the bottleneck of amplitude ladder number. In order to improve modulation ability, the SNR of transmission environment is very high. In addition, it is necessary to consider whether the DSP capability built into the 5G baseband chip can support a larger amount of data computation, as well as the chip size, power performance and so on.

5G baseband chip products can be divided into two categories, one supporting the frequency band below 6GHz and millimeter wave, the other is the 5G baseband chip supporting the frequency band below 6GHz. No matter what kind, we can not ignore the fact that the technical threshold is high, the R & D cycle is long, the capital cost is large, and the market competition is fierce. Many companies have abandoned their baseband businesses, including Freescale, Texas Instruments, Broadcom, Nvidia and Ericsson.

Huawei has entered the 5G baseband chip market, Apple is reducing its reliance on Qualcomm to work with Intel, and Samsung is holding hands with U.S. operator Verizon, all of which hint at a surge in the 5G era of market competition.

None of us can foresee what the 5 G baseband standards and applications will look like in the future.

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